martes, 19 de mayo de 2020

Terrorism in Japan. The Sarin Gas Attacks on the Tokyo Subway

Columnist Alejandro Díaz Castro.
Profesional en Relaciones Internacionales y Ciencia Política
Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Bogotá D.C.

(Ver otras publicaciones del autor)

Abstract: This essay will discuss how the sarin gas attack was managed as a wicked problem in Japan, analyzing some aspects; first one, with a time line the actions that were taken will be described. Second one, the counter-terrorism actions and crisis evaluation will be evaluated. At the end, the strategies and the practices that were adopted by actors involved will be analyzed answering questions such as what actions were taken by the actors involved? What was the goal of these actions? And how did this contribute (or not) to managing the safety or security challenge? To understand better these, the essay will be written in chronological order; firstly, an introduction about the topic will be done by explaining the details and studying the case. After that, the importance of studying this topic will be written to continue with academic literature which confirms the facts and ending with a conclusion an recommendations about the topic. | Key Words: Terrorism, counter-terrorism, wicked problem, communication crisis, Japan, doomsday.

Before tackling the attack and the way that it was managed, it is important to analyze, and understand how the events happened that day. “On the morning of March 20, 1995, members of a “doomsday” cult released sarin gas, a neurotoxic agent, in the Tokyo subway system, killing twelve people and causing more than five thousand people to seek medical care” (Bridges, 2005:103). The modus operandi used by the terrorist group had such as principal actors Ikuo Hayashi in Chiyoda train line, Kenishi Hirose in Marunouchi train line, Toru Toyada in Marunouchi train line, Masato Yokohama in Hibiya train line, and Yasuo Hayashi in Hibiya train line.

The mission that was charged of doing by the group’s leader was to take with them the sarin gas camouflaged into a newspaper in a liquid status wrapped in plastic bags, and leave them chipped inside of the train in a peak hour before getting off. After getting off, the gas started to suffocate the passengers meanwhile the terrorists were picked up by their accomplice Tomomitsu Niimi, Koichi kitamura, Katsuya Takahashi, Kiyotaka Tonozaki, Shigeo Sugimoto.

Fortunately, the Sarin that was prepared was just 30 percent pure lower than the one that was used in the Matsumoto attack which explains why there were not many people killed due to the gas. However, this act can be considered as one violation of the security which “is defined as the condition of being protected from harm (or other non-desirable outcomes) caused by intentional human actions or behaviors” (Bibi van den Berg, 2012: 6).

Nonetheless one of the most important things to analyze in this essay is the measurements that were taken by the government and the different actors involved in this issue starting for the counter-terrorism actions and the crisis evaluation before, after, and during the crisis.

1. The counter-terrorism actions before, during, and after

Before the sarin attack on March 20, 1995, two cases were linked to the cult which developed this attack. The cases, however, were not well investigated, and for that reason, the police did not notice that the group was a hazard for the society.

The first case was the murder of a follower of the cult leader Shōkō Asahara who forced a girl to practice an air yoga which was extremely advanced for her finishing in her death, the issue was hidden by the cult due to bad publicity that it could bring, and the body was cremated.

The second case was the murder of a family after the sarin attack appeared in Shōkō Asahara property, but the police did not want to search in that area even though one of the clues conduced to the cult leader since the beginning. The family murder happened due to information that the father had obtained from the cult where he could have proved that a girl had died in the Asahara monastery. Because of his blindness, charisma, and the excuse of being a religious person many people believe wrongly that Shōkō Asahara was not a risk for the society, and that he could not be linked to these issues.

During the attack, not much can be said because no one could have predicted the day, the hour, the train lines, the method among others that could have been used. Nevertheless, some people assert that avoiding the attack before it happened is much better than trying to avoid an attack during the moment that this is executing.

Finally, after the attack, there were some mistakes one of them was that as many, if not most, disasters, victims self-transported to nearby treatment facilities. For many victims of the Tokyo sarin gas attacks this was St. Luke’s Medical Center (Taneda, 2005). Some surviving victims drove themselves or walked to nearby treatment facilities (DoJ, 2002). The problems arising from this self-transfer phenomenon are serious and complex. Without a pre-hospital triage system, such as Simple Triage and Rapid Transport (START), seriously injured victims who need immediate care might not get the timely and appropriate treatment (Hafen, Karren, & Mistrovich, 1992). For that reason, there were a lot of people who went walking to the hospital and it was impossible to determine the level of their injuries. Increasing in that way the number of people who were at risk to die.

However, not all actions that were taken put in risk the citizens of Japan; for instance, chasing, capturing, and executing had a specific goal that will be analyzed here because it is remarkable the way that after the attack the police decided to act, the first actions were conducted to capture and dismantle the organization which attacks the country’s security. The second actions were able to send a message to similar, and also the same organization which committed the acts by executing the authors and people involved in the terrorist attack.

In this way, the government stops the circle that Alex Schmid describes as a part of a terrorist attack in which the perpetrators try to manipulate the population and the government to obtain attention, intimidate or demand something to them as it can be said here.

“The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators. Threat- and violence-based communication processes between terrorist (organization), (imperiled) victims, and main targets are used to manipulate the main target (audience(s)), turning it into a target of terror, a target of demands, or a target of attention, depending on whether intimidation, coercion, or propaganda is primarily sought".

Now that we have discussed the goal of the police actions it is important to analyze how the action contributes to managing this situation. For example, by executing the leader and the perpetrators were the way that the government communicates to them that the criminal acts will not be accepted. Furthermore, the organization disappeared due to the lack of a charismatic leader and they have not done more attacks hitherto. Thanks to the previous actions the society can enjoy a peaceful environment knowing that if a criminal tries to damage citizens, organizations, or institutions, they will be punished in a severe way to contribute to the safety and security of japan citizens.

Nonetheless, there are similar organizations which have been followed by the authorities, there are some religious cults that are evaluated, checked frequently by the police to avoid that they follow the doctrine of the previous groups, creating chemical weapons, biological weapons or planning to attack the society. Creating control over them and their activities.


One the one hand, it is important to say that the actions to prevent terrorism in Japan could have and should have improved to prevent this unfortunate event. The police actions, however, were well executed, and it could be reflected in nowadays japan’s society where they have not had a similar incident since that day.

On the other hand, the terrorist group which attacked previously the city left a lot of followers who have created similar organizations around Japan. These religious groups which claim that they are not linked with the terrorist issue are increasing the police duties due to the regular inspections that the force has to do to prevent future terrorist acts.


Even though the regular inspections are increasing the police duties, it is necessary to continue doing them to avoid having future events out of control. Moreover, the efforts in the prevention of terrorism as a counter-terrorism measure should be increased, and likewise, religious groups should be taken into account as a possible hazard for the society as the fourth wave of terrorism suggests and studies.

Moreover, the crisis management should be trained to avoid getting into terrorism game in which a lack of communication can create an advantage for these groups because of an empowered society with a correct government communication will be able to overcome and avoid a situation such as the one that we discussed in this essay or a similar one.


Bibi van den Berg & Pauline Hutten. (2005). Security and safety: An introduction. 2020, de Institute of Security and Global Affairs Sitio web:

Channel news Asia. (February 2020). Tokyo’s Fateful Sarin Gas Attack in 1995 | One Day That Changed Asia | Full Episode. 2020, de CNA Insider Sitio web:

Department of Justice (DoJ). (2002). Arlington County After-action Report on the September 11 Terrorist Attach on the Pentagon. Prepared by Titan Systems Corporation. Contract Number G310F0084K, order number 2001F_341.

Elizabeth Bridges. (2005). The Sarin Gas Attacks on the Tokyo Subway? 10 years later/Lessons Learned. Traumatology, 11, 103-119.

Hafen, B., Karren, K., & Mistrovich, J. (1992). Pre hospital Emergency Care. Brady Prentice Hall: NJ, 798-801.

Schmid and Jongman (1998). Political Terrorism: A New Guide To Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories, And Literature. Switzerland: Transaction Publishers.

Taneda. (2005). The sarin nerve gas attack on the Tokyo subway system: Hospital response to mass casualties. Traumatology, 11(2).

sábado, 25 de abril de 2020

Terrorism in Colombia. Negotiating with terrorists encourages more terrorism

Columnist Alejandro Díaz Castro.
Profesional en Relaciones Internacionales y Ciencia Política
Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Bogotá D.C.

(Ver otras publicaciones del autor)

Abstract: This essay will discuss if negotiating with terrorists encourages more terrorism studying the Colombian case to answer the following questions; the first one, Who has claimed that this assumption can be considered true? and the second one, why it is important to test this assumption? To clarify this, the essay will be written in chronological order; firstly, an introduction about the topic will be done by explaining the details and studying the authors in Colombia who have done this assumption. After that, the importance of studying this topic will be written to continue with academic literature which confirms the facts and ending with a conclusion if the assumption is true, partly true, or false. | Key Words: Terrorism, Colombia, Peace Process.

For more than 50 years Colombia has faced one of the largest conflicts in the recent history, and this conflict finished in November 2016 with the agreement between the Colombian government and ex Revolutionary Colombian Army Forces (FARC for its acronym in Spanish).

However, many people disagreed arguing that this agreement will encourage more terrorism. One of the principal opponents was the ex-president Alvaro Uribe Velez, the leader of the Centro Democratico party who said “terrorism snake when feels that is been suffocated and we have a fork in his neck, right there asks for peace processes so that we can loosen the fork, take oxygen and poison again”

Another representative person who claimed that the negotiation with the Revolutionary Colombian Army Forces (FARC) will encourage more terrorism was Jaime Ruiz the president of the Colombian retired Military Forces who asserted that "The excessive generosity of the State in this process would constitute a great sign of weakness that would be skillfully exploited by terrorists".[1]

Nonetheless, the peace process continued giving satisfactory results in the short term, that is the reason why it is important to test whether the assumption that negotiating with terrorists encourages more terrorism is true or not. To do that is indispensable to check the available data regarding terrorism attacks, solders' death in conflict, and academic opinions about this.

1. Database of the Armed Conflict in Colombia from 2002 to 2017[2]

Before starting the peace process with the guerrilla members it could be said that the ex-president Alvaro Uribe Velez was right since it seems that for numbers of dead people, the Colombian Militarily Army was winning the war. the civilians, however, were being affected in the middle of the conflict.

Nevertheless, the next image which was extracted from the same resource starts showing a slight decrease after Alvaro Uribe finished in 2010 his period as Colombian president which last from 2002 to 2010. Colombian president which last from 2002 to 2010.

Subsequently, On September second, 2012 when the peace negotiation started until September 2016 the rate of death people decrease dramatically to achieve in 2017 the zero percent of people died due to violence caused by the conflict between FARC and Colombian Military Forces as it is shown next.

According to the statistics, it can be said that even though at the beginning the ex-president Alvaro Uribe was right saying that the peace process could be a strategy for the FARC’s side to take out the military pressure over them, in 2017 the statistics showed that the negotiation gave more than satisfactory results.

On the other hand, according to El Tiempo newspaper the ex-guerrilla members who are compromised with the peace process after signing the agreement are 98,6 percent. 3.220 ex-guerrilla members are living in the training and reinstatement camps which were adequate to them, meanwhile, 8,816 ex-guerrilla members are outside of these areas, some of them have returned to their communities, but it does not mean that they are committing crimes.

Additionally, some members of the ex-guerrilla are representing internationally the country. For instance, there is a group of ex-guerrilla who were invited to the World Rafting Championships in Tully, Australia, where they participated out of competition, under the newly-established IRF Peace Flag.[3]

Besides, there are other groups that are exporting coffee, producing craft beer, and selling mountaineering equipment among other projects which have produced more than 18 thousand millions of Colombian pesos and have given a job to more than 1.600 people.

To sum up and talking about the Colombian case, it can be said that until the moment the negotiation did not encourage more terrorism even though the actual government has not fulfilled what was agreed. However, there are some cases where it can be used as a military strategy. For that reason, this assumption can be considered as partly true due to more studies needed.

1. Vanguardia news paper Alvaro Uribe Velez, Colombian ex-president statement

2. El Tiempo news paper Jaime Ruíz statement

3. Database of the Armed Conflict in Colombia from 2002 to 2017

4. Statistics post conflict in Colombia, El Espectador news paper

5. Rafting Peace process

[1] For more information visit

[2] Database available in

[3] To check more information please visit

Los deportes

Por Mary Dagua.

Los deportes son para la vida una parte fundamental, teniendo en cuenta la posibilidad que tenemos todos de realizarlos, la necesidad de hacerlo por bienes en la salud y las emociones que producen en algunos. Viendo, escuchando o practicando algún deporte son cientos las emociones que se trasladan del corazón al pecho y la garganta de un aficionado. Sin embargo, la realidad vista desde un panorama más social nos lleva a plantearnos la posibilidad de que los deportes hayan sido manchados por acontecimientos bochornosos o de carácter social negativo.

Son tantos los momentos históricos en el deporte qué debemos hacer un viaje por países, continentes, lenguas y culturas muy diversas. Me planteo hacer ese viaje así como lo logró hacerlo Carpentier sobre la música en Concierto Barroco al igual que lo hace este autor Cubano, adentrándose en vidas de músicos relevantes para la historia de ese arte lo haré yo con los actores principales del deporte mundial.

Un viaje que emprenden unos aficionados hacia el estadio de Hillsborough sería el inicio de un fatídico sábado, cientos de jóvenes, niños y adultos se adentran en un estadio con capacidad reducida, 96 entraron por última vez a un estadio de fútbol. Son los deportes estos contrastes, la ilusión de viajar incluso kilómetros para ver a una camiseta roja con tintes blancos patear un balón en busca de pasar de fase, ni siquiera en busca de una copa. Morir debido a una fase clasificatoria ¿Sería menos doloroso si hubiera sido en la final de la Champions League? es una estupidez tan solo plantearse la pregunta, pero lo fue aún más lo que opinaron medios de comunicación y policía al respecto, buscando hallar en las víctimas un culpable. Víctima y victimario puestos sobre una misma mesa, comiendo juntos de la misma injusticia.

Son los prejuicios los culpables de los peores momentos del deporte, sin dudarlo dos veces considero mi afirmación verídica e inquebrantable. Fueron 96 las personas fallecidas en Hillsborough y fueron esas mismas 96 las catalogadas como hooligans, hinchas extremadamente violentos que visitaban los estadios de Gran Bretaña para ver deporte. Los prejuicios de manera irremediable interfirieron en la noticia fatídica, fueron los desadaptados quienes provocaron la muerte de 96 personas. Vemos en los videos repartirse unos a otros publicidad como si fuesen camillas que iban a salvar una, dos, tres o noventaises vidas, fueron los desadaptados quienes permitieron que ese 96 no fuera un 97, 98 o 100.

Los desadaptados corriendo por toda la cancha en busca de ayuda, halando personas de los brazos para poder sacarlos de las montañas humanas. Los desadaptados salvando vidas y luego calificados de eso, de inhumanos, de hooligans peligrosos que habían provocado 96 muertes al no saber comportarse en un estadio de fútbol. La culpa la tienen ellos, eso dicen los medios oficiales, para no admitir que utilizaron los prejuicios como pared de contención para no ahogarse en el caos que ellos habían provocado. 96 vidas perdidas y una sociedad evidentemente corrompida por lanzarse la pelota no de un arco al otro sino de un culpable a un inocente que debe cargar con la presión social. 96 motivos para hablar del deporte.

-¿36 es un número menor que 96?
- No.

36 fue un número mayor que 96 en un momento específico de la historia en el cual los deportes reunidos en un solo lugar fueron tergiversados de maneras inimaginables en la actualidad. Berlín fue el lugar escogido, no fueron 96 los muertos, fueron millones los escondidos detrás de una verdadera cortina de humo. La anterior es una afirmación que suelo detestar “el deporte es una cortina de humo” no lo es, una cortina de humo no saca vidas adelante y enseña carácter a personitas que dedican su vida a una pasión en específico. Pero esta sí fue una verdadera cortina de humo.

Criminales fueron aplaudidos en Berlín en 1936 en la Olimpiada Nazi. Los deportes reunidos en su maxima representacion mundial fueron utilizados para fomentar crímenes contra la humanidad. Un hombre negro humilló al pequeño hombre blanco llevándose tres medallas de oro a su congregación llena de más gente de color. Crímenes cometidos contra los considerados inferiores, de razas que no tenían nada que rescatar. Un hombre blanco ayudó a un hombre negro a ganar una de esas tres medallas. Discriminación, censura y privación de libertad. Libertad, un salto triple y un hombre negro con una medalla dorada en su cuello. Odio, desprecio, miradas humillantes. Un himno que hizo enojar al genocida conocido como Hitler.

Las manchas en los deportes son incontables. Contables si nos ponemos en la ardua labor de discriminar una mancha de otra hasta llegar a hacer una lista con las manchas y manchitas. La del 36 fue la máxima expresión de un reguero de manchas. No fue sino casi 20 años después cuando la sociedad se dió cuenta de su error, de lo cometido por ellos mismos, de lo que habían permitido que sucediera. Pero era ya una mancha imposible de borrar, una mancha que llega hasta el 2020 en un escrito sobre los deportes. Quizás porque fueron los mayores asesinos de la historia quienes se escondieron detrás de esa mancha y cortina de humo. Los primeros prejuicios contra los mal llamados hooligans son difícilmente comparables con los realizados por los nazis contra todo lo que no se asemejara a ellos.

Hooligans y Nazis son dos términos tan diferentes, maneras de llamar a personas igual de diferentes, pero hay algo en lo cual se ingresan ambos, los prejuicios y los deportes. La utilización de unas olimpiadas para esconder la mugre que hay en casa y buscar propaganda la podemos contrastar con la necesidad de llamar vándalos a unos aficionados con la finalidad de cubrir sus propias manchas. Una mancha histórica que tiene el fútbol con la sociedad ha sido utilizada para tapar una que tiene la justicia con las víctimas.

La construcción de una identidad es lo que creo ha influido notoriamente en los dos acontecimientos anteriores, unos tomados por bandidos y los otros por héroes, siendo todo lo contrario “¿Héroes o payasos?” se preguntan dos personajes de Demasiados Héroes de Laura Restrepo, somos payasos creyendole a unos falsos héroes, concluiría yo. Construimos una identidad como sociedad americana, otra como europeos, una más como colombianos o franceses, alemanes o ingleses, pero compartimos una misma como payasos, una que no fue construida por nosotros mismo sino que nos la hachantamos de manera graciosa. Confiando en payasos y dudando de héroes. Considerando mayor el 96 que el 36, payasos.

Un recorrido histórico por la música, quizá es lo que hace Carpentier, he perdido yo mi rumbo. No soy una “fomentora” de lo real maravilloso, ni autora de ningún Boom, son una estudiante que empezó hablando de los deportes sabiendo que terminaría hablando de estos con carácter social. Una denuncia no es lo que escribo, me tomo libertades de buscar una voz dentro de todo este lenguaje que no es clásico pero tampoco barroco. Encuentro en este un tema tan interesante que debí no haberlo escogido, sumar una pasión por los deportes con una por la historia me ha llevado a perder el hilo de ese recorrido que dió Carpentier y yo quería dar.

Yo no soy una autora del Boom por eso me doy la licencia para continuar hablando de los deportes como una reunión de sentimientos que han hecho relevante ciertos momentos históricos. Hay uno en particular que ha dejado huella en mi memoria, el partido de fútbol que presencié, que viví que ví con mis propios ojos, el partido de fútbol más desigual e igualitario de la vida. Dos bandos nunca antes tan opuestos, unos dejaron se quitaron sus botas pesadas y se pusieron las de caucho para poder moverse a la velocidad del balón por encima del barro, los otros 11 dejaron el temor de desconocer a quienes habían combatido durante años. Eran 11 vs 11.

Hombres fornidos que habían luchado con balas durante décadas se encontraban dándose las manos en señal de cortesía para iniciar una batalla que sería más significativa que los disparos que habían realizado años atras. Estaban de-construyendo identidades que les habían dado sectores políticos y sociales. No encuentro manera poética de decir lo que sentí en ese momento, porque no hay manera terrenal de decirlo y no es porque conozca el cielo “sino porque aquí nunca ha habido nada tan bello”.

Un conflicto armado pasó a ser uno deportivo, mucho más ameno y divertido, significativo para ambos bandos como para el público expectante que miraba con ilusión el futuro cada vez más llevadero. Los deportes que antes habían significado prejuicios y cortinas de humo ahora, en mi actualidad, tienen un significado mucho menos metafórico pero más significativo. Era el inicio de un fin, eliminando esas limitaciones que teníamos frente a nuestros rostros. Jamás una joven podía llegar a estar tan emocionada al ver un balón entrar en una portería, sin importar si era la del ala sur o norte. Hipocresía se le podría llamar en una cancha de futbol normal, doble cara, vendida, sandía, doble camiseta y tantos apodos más, pero en ese momento solo fuí una colombiana feliz.

martes, 21 de abril de 2020

The Oslo double Attack

Columnist Alejandro Díaz Castro.
Profesional en Relaciones Internacionales y Ciencia Política
Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Bogotá D.C.

(Ver otras publicaciones del autor)

Abstract: This essay will discuss the Oslo Bomb Attack and Shooting on Utoya in July 2011, to answer two main questions; the first one, what was the verdict. Were the terms ‘terrorist’ and ‘terrorism’ used about the perpetrator and the incident?, and the second one, should this incident be labeled as terrorism, taking in account the Academic Consensus Definition of terrorism by Alex Schmid? To clarify this, the essay will be written in chronological order; firstly, an introduction about the topic will be done by explaining the details and studying the terrorism definition created by Alex Schmid. Afterward, the questions will be answered based on previous explanations. To end with a conclusion. | Key Words: Terrorism, Oslo Bomb, Terrorist.


The Oslo Bomb Attack was developed on July 22nd, 2011 at 15:26 were 8 people resulted killed and 30 people were hurt, the second incident - The shooting on Utoya- was the same day a few hours later. Resulting in 69 people killed and 66 people injured to have a total of 77 people dead and 96 injured in one day with 2 different attacks.

The perpetrated was Anders Breivik, a 30 years old man who was captured meanwhile he was shooting young people on Utoya island. His reasons, according to his manifesto called “European Declaration of Independence” which contains 1500 pages and was published the same day of the incidents. He extremely disagrees with the government and the Norwegian Labour Party for supporting the multicultural society which includes the Islamic Religion and Marxist ideas. That is the reason why the bomb was located nearby the prime minister’s office, and the shooting was on Utoya where was located at the Labour party youth camp.

Now that the reasons which took Breivik to do what he did and how the attacks were developed are cleared, it is important to study the definition of terrorism that is provided by Alex Schmid and is generally accepted by many organizations and academics to be able to answer one of the principal questions of this essay:

"Terrorism is an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby - in contrast to assassination - the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators. Threat- and violence-based communication processes between terrorist (organization), (imperiled) victims, and main targets are used to manipulate the main target (audience(s)), turning it into a target of terror, a target of demands, or a target of attention, depending on whether intimidation, coercion, or propaganda is primarily sought".

The Schmid definition covers some patterns which explain why Breivik’s acts were considered as a terrorist attack, the first one was due to the idiosyncratic. He believed that people who practice the Islamic Religion and Marxist ideas should not be allowed to enter Norway. Secondly, and it is linked with the previous one, Breivik did not like the government at that time since in his trial he said that his original plan was to kill all the government members including the prime minister.

Furthermore, the human victims were symbolic targets because 69 people who were killed were a member of the Norwegian Labour Party. He was not interested in a confrontation with the police. That was the reason why as soon as the police arrived he turned himself in, having bullets and weapons to continue fighting again the officers. Showing in that way that his objective was to create attention in his message.

The previous reasons were enough to condemn him for the charges of terrorism, and the terrorist attacks on July 22 to 21 years of prison. Some people were trying to change the charges for crimes against humanity in that way he would have had a severe condemn; however, it was not possible. Nevertheless, after finishing the 21 years the government can extend 5 years more if it is considered that he would be a risk for society.


To sum up, it can be said that Breivik was considered and judge as a terrorist due to conceive his acts as terrorist attacks. His actions, moreover, match perfectly with Schmid's definition of terrorism. Avoiding in that way that Breivik was judged for crimes against humanity and having just 21 years of prison instead of 30 if he would have been judged for the second crime mentioned.


1. Susana Mena Autrilla, 2017 “Anders Breivik un crimen por convicción Política”. URL

2. Schmid and Jongman (1988)

3. “El pais” News papper, 2011. URL:

4. “Gran atentado de Oslo” Centro de Analisis y perspectiva, 2013. URL:
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